Balashivske Deposit, a deposit of kaolin, is situated on the right bank of the Dnieper plateau.
Balashivske Deposit is represented by two separate deposits: Western and Eastern. The last one consists of two areas (Northern and Southern).

The deposit is located in the Kirovohrad district of the Kirovohrad oblast, one of the administrative centers of Ukraine It is 3 km away from the city of Kirovohrad in the northwest direction. An asphalt road leading to Kirovohrad is running across the northwest and southeast deposit lenses. The total area of the deposit is 1.2 square km. The seaport is situated 195 km away from the deposit in Mykolaiv. The nearest railroad station, Lelekivka, is 3 km away from the deposit.

The area of the deposit development is a hummock and hollow plateau crossed with ravines and cloughs.

Absolute levels range from 140 m up to 190 m.

The climate of the region where the deposit is located is moderately continental with dry, hot summers and winters with little snow. Average annual precipitation is approximately 450 mm up to 520 mm.

The area of the deposit development is non-seismic.

 

Deposit Geological Structure

The deposit geological structure consists of the minerals of the Precambrian crystal host material and loose sedimentary minerals of the platform cover. The minerals and rocks of the crystal base are represented by granites and migmatites with different structures characteristic to the Kirovohrad-Zhytomyr group. The rocks of the sedimentary platform cover are represented mainly by the constituents of the Paleogene, Neogene and quaternary systems.

The productive mineral and rock mass is related to the Buchakske deposit of the Paleogene system. In Balashivske and other deposits of refractory materials, situated within the Shestakivska drawdown, kaolin is found in its main part and slopes that create a ledge within the Balashivske deposit and is divided into two parts — northwest and southeast — by the upheaval of the crystal base.

The southeast area is a solid, almost horizontal layer of kaolin that stretches into the northsouth direction. Its length is 1.1 km, the width ranges from 300 to 700 m.

The contours of the layer are winding, thickness ranges from 1 up to 19.5 m, an average level is 11.5 m. Absolute levels of the layer coverage are 110 up to 130 m, soil absolute levels are 102 up to 126 m. In the central part of the area kaolin creates a layer where low-capacity sand lenses can be found occasionally.

The northwest area which development has just begun has an isometric form. Its length is 0.8 km with the maximum width of 0.6 km. The mineral deposit is represented by gray kaolin and creates horizontal layers. Their thickness is inconsistent and varies from 1 to 15.9 m, in average it is 7.5 m. Individual barren rock and mineral lenses occur in this area, mainly represented by the sands.

The rocks and minerals that overlap these lenses are represented by argillo-arenaceous formations of neogene, reddish brown clays and quarternary argil sand ground.

 

Deposit Qualitative Description. Reserves Assessment

Productive mass of the Balashivske deposit is represented by kaolin. We have selected and analyzed 330 samples of kaolin. Based on the analysis results we have created a qualitative description of the minerals and estimated the reserves.

Kaolin is a mineral of the following color shades: light gray, gray, dark gray, rarely brown or red. Its composition may include glass with sandy particles or fine carbon inclusions. The most widespread kaolins in the deposit are light gray and gray kaolins without quartz and iron impurities.

The main rock-forming mineral of kaolin is kaolinite (85–95%).

As an additive from the clay minerals we detected:

  • – hydromica (up to 5–10%),
  • – halloysite (up to 5%),
  • – gibbsite (up to 10%).

 

Among other additives are quartz (5–25%), feldspar (2–5%), muscovite, nitrite, marcasite, iron hydroxide, additives of organic substances.

It should be noted that according to the average indicators of the chemical composition kaolin of the Balashivske deposit is close to pure kaolinite that increases its commercial value. Since the chemical and mineral composition of kaolins is quite homogeneous and is represented mostly by the kaolinite mineral, their level of refractoriness is high.

In general, kaolin of the Balashivske deposit based on its macroscopic properties, chemical and mineral composition, and refractoriness is similar to the clays developed in the Oboznivske deposit.

Physicochemical propеrtiеs of sесопdаry kaolin

 

Designation  КО-0  КО-1  КО-2  КО-3
Frасtiап of total mass per burnt substance Al2O3, % not less thаn 44 42 39 36
Percentage of Fe2O3 not more than 1,2 1,3 1,8 1,8
Changing of the mass under glowing % not more than 16 16 - -
Refractoriness °С, not lower than 1770 1750 1730 1710
Moistness, % not more than 24 24 24 24
Residue on the net №0,063, % not more than 0,9 5 9 13
Perсentage of silicia Si2О,%  from 40,2 to 72,2
Percentage of titaпium dioxide Ti2О,%  from 0,8 to 1,3

 

 

 

Physic mechanical propertiеs of kaolin

 

Fоrmiпs moistness,% from 22 to 25
Аir shringage,% from 3,0 to 5,0
Absolute shrinkage,% from 9,0 to 19,0
Water аbsоrрtion,% from 3,0 to 18,0
Bulk weight, gram/centimeter³ from 1,3 to 2,4

 

 

Deposit reserves calculations will be refined based on the results of the exploratory commercial development.